Organic or biological evolution It is the change in the properties of the organisms in the course of time. This biological process is responsible for the origin, diversification and extinction of living organisms on the planet.
The evolution It is the unifying principle of the Biological Sciences. Here the famous phrase is "Nothing makes sense in biology if it is not in the light of evolution" (Dobzhansky, 1973).
Evolutionary biology It aims to discover the story of the life and the causes of diversity and the characteristics of organisms.
Evolutionary biology It makes important contributions to other biological disciplines and social concerns as medicine, Agriculture and biotechnology.
THE EVIDENCE FOR EVOLUTION
According to the prominent evolutionary biologist Douglas Futuyma, the evidence for evolution can be grouped into four categories:
1.- The fossil record: The temporary appearance of fossil species in the rocks, they relate to current species. For example, jawless fish appear before vertebrates in the fossil record.
2.- Phylogenetic and comparative studies: they reveal common descent between species. Can be reconstructed the evolution of the characteristics of organisms and when appeared in terms of geologic time (millions of years).
3.- Genes and genomes: Organisms of different groups (animals, vegetables, fungi, bacteria), they share the same genes. This is evidence of common descent.
4.- Biogeography: The geographical distribution of various species can be explained in terms of geological events, as for example the separation of the continents.
Christian M. Ibanez